# Known and Unknown Facts of LoRa: Experiences from a Large-scale Measurement Study

Published in ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks, 2019

Recommended citation: Liando, Jansen C., Amalinda Gamage, Agustinus W. Tengourtius, and Mo Li. "Known and unknown facts of lora: Experiences from a large-scale measurement study." ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks (TOSN) 15, no. 2 (2019): 1-35. https://wands.sg/publications/full_list/papers/TOSN_19_2.pdf

Long Range (LoRa) is a Low-power Wide-area Network technology designed for the Internet of Things. In recent years, it has gained significant momentum among industrial and research communities. Patented by Semtech, LoRa makes use of chirp spread spectrum modulation to deliver data with promises of long battery life, far-reaching communication distances, and a high node density at the cost of data rate. In this article, we conduct a series of experiments to verify the claims made by Semtech on LoRa technology. Our results show that LoRa is capable of communicating over 10km under line-of-sight environments. However, under nonline-of-sight environments, LoRa’s performance is severely affected by obstructions such as buildings and vegetations. Moreover, the promise of prolonged battery life requires extreme tuning of parameters. Last, a LoRa gateway supports up to 6,000 nodes with PRR requirement of >70%. This study also explores the relationship between LoRa transmission parameters and proposes an algorithm to determine optimal settings in terms of coverage and power consumption under non-line-of-sight environments. It further investigates the impact of LoRa Wide-area Networks on energy consumption and network capacity along with implementation of a LoRa medium access mechanism and possible gains brought forth by implementing such a mechanism.

BibTeX:

@article{liando2019known,
title={Known and unknown facts of lora: Experiences from a large-scale measurement study},
author={Liando, Jansen C and Gamage, Amalinda and Tengourtius, Agustinus W and Li, Mo},
journal={ACM Transactions on Sensor Networks (TOSN)},
volume={15},
number={2},
pages={1--35},
year={2019},
publisher={ACM New York, NY, USA}
}